finding 18.1 : key-message-18-1

Co-production of knowledge via engagement and collaboration between stakeholder communities and scientific communities can improve the usefulness of scientific results by decision makers (high confidence).

This finding is from chapter 18 of Second State of the Carbon Cycle Report (SOCCR2): A Sustained Assessment Report.

Description of evidence base: Understanding what is useful for decision making can help guide development of science more effectively (Lemos and Morehouse 2005; Moser 2009). In many cases, this development requires little extra time or funding and can be as simple as understanding the formatting of information. For example, experimental data on carbon emissions may be generated daily and at a local level, but information on an annual timescale and at the geopolitical level often is needed to inform decisions. In other cases, matching model results with existing decision-making processes will take time and changes to models and processes. Stakeholder engagement has resulted in the use of science results to support decision making for a number of activities, including 1) new modeling capabilities to estimate national forest carbon and attribution of carbon stock changes (Woodall et al., 2015), 2) methods for estimating methane (CH4) emissions (Turner et al., 2016), and 3) policy-relevant soil management (Paustian et al., 2016). Boundary organizations that bring together a cross-section of disciplines have been successful in promoting fundamental science that is useful to decision makers (Brown et al., 2016). Inherent in the communication and coordination of science and decision makers regarding Key Finding 1 will be the need to revisit, understand, and define the boundaries among science, policy, and management, as well as fundamental science, use-inspired science, and applied science (Moser 2009). Defining these boundaries will help guide and support the co-production of knowledge.

New information and remaining uncertainties: The co-production of knowledge is limited by the success and effectiveness of communication, and the certainty of success depends on the process of engagement.

Assessment of confidence based on evidence: Communicating information and data formatting needs for carbon stock changes, estimates of net emissions associated with specific activities, and projections of carbon stock and net emissions with uncertainty estimates has helped guide field work, observations, and modeling to meet these needs.

This finding was derived from figure P.2: P.2. Likelihood and Confidence Evaluation

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