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@prefix dcterms: <> .
@prefix xsd: <> .
@prefix gcis: <> .
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@prefix biro: <> .

   dcterms:identifier "key-message-16-3";
   gcis:findingNumber "16.3"^^xsd:string;
   gcis:findingStatement "The increasing concentration of CO<sub>2</sub> in coastal and open-ocean waters leads to ocean acidification. Corrosive conditions in the subsurface occur regularly in Arctic coastal waters, which are naturally prone to low pH, and North Pacific coastal waters, where upwelling of deep, carbon-rich waters has intensified and, in combination with the uptake of anthropogenic carbon, leads to low seawater pH and aragonite saturation states in spring, summer, and early fall (<em>very high confidence, very likely</em>)."^^xsd:string;
   gcis:isFindingOf <>;
   gcis:isFindingOf <>;

## Properties of the finding:
   gcis:descriptionOfEvidenceBase "In Arctic coastal waters, pH and carbonate saturation state are naturally low (Cai et al., 2010b; Mathis et al., 2011; Steiner et al., 2013). The pace of ocean acidification is faster in the Arctic than in other coastal and open-ocean regions (Fabry et al., 2009; Feely et al., 2009; Mathis et al., 2015a). The Beaufort Sea upper halocline and deep waters now regularly show aragonite undersaturation (Mathis et al., 2015a; Miller et al., 2014). These chemical seawater signatures are propagated via M’Clure Strait and Amundsen Gulf into the Canadian Archipelago and beyond (Azetsu-Scott et al., 2010; Turk et al., 2016; Yamamoto-Kawai et al., 2013). Variability in the carbon content of freshwater end members also has been shown to contribute to undersaturation events in coastal waters of the Gulf of Alaska region (Siedlecki et al., 2017; Evans et al., 2014)<br><br> In the North America Pacific Coast (NAPC) region, anthropogenic CO<sub>2</sub> uptake combined with climate-driven changes in upwelling circulation result in coastal acidification events. Upwelling-favorable winds along the NAPC have intensified over recent years, especially in the northern parts of the upwelling regimes (García-Reyes et al., 2015; McClatchie et al., 2016; Rykaczewski and Checkley 2008; Rykaczewski et al., 2015; Sydeman et al., 2014). In the northern California Current System, <em>p</em>CO<sub>2</sub> (partial pressure of CO<sub>2</sub>), pH, and aragonite saturation reach levels known to be harmful to ecologically and economically important species during the summer upwelling season (see <a href='/chapter/17'>Ch. 17: Biogeochemical Effects of Rising Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide</a>; Barton et al., 2012, 2015; Bednaršek et al., 2014, 2016, 2017; Feely et al., 2008, 2016, 2018; Harris et al., 2013; Siedlecki et al., 2016)."^^xsd:string;
   gcis:assessmentOfConfidenceBasedOnEvidence "Statement is well supported by the literature. No major uncertainties."^^xsd:string;
   gcis:newInformationAndRemainingUncertainties "Statement is well supported by the literature. No major uncertainties."^^xsd:string;

   a gcis:Finding .

## This finding cites the following entities:

   prov:wasDerivedFrom <>.