table : regional-estimates-of-net-air-sea-carbon-dioxide-exchange-from-observations-and-regional-models

Regional Estimates of Net Air-Sea Carbon Dioxide Exchange from Observations and Regional Models (a,b)

table 16.1


This table appears in chapter 16 of the Second State of the Carbon Cycle Report (SOCCR2): A Sustained Assessment Report report.

Notes
(a) Positive fluxes indicate a source to the atmosphere.
(b) C, carbon; CO2, carbon dioxide; Tg, teragrams; g, grams; 1 Tg = 10^12 g.

This table is composed of these arrays :
1755668b (24x6)
Region Area (km^2) Air-Sea Exchange Air-Sea Exchange Observation-Based Estimate or Model Reference
g C per m^2 per year (a,b) Tg C per year (a,b)
North American Atlantic Coast (NAAC) North American Atlantic Coast (NAAC) North American Atlantic Coast (NAAC) North American Atlantic Coast (NAAC) North American Atlantic Coast (NAAC) North American Atlantic Coast (NAAC)
Scotian Shelf 2.2 × 10^5 8.3 ± 6.6 1.8 Combination of in situ and satellite observations (10-year average, 1999–2008) Shadwick et al. (2010)
Scotian Shelf 1.28 × 10^5 −14 ± 3.2 −1.9 Observation-based estimate (reference year, 2004) Signorini et al. (2013); using Ho et al. (2011) gas transfer param.
Scotian Shelf 1.28 × 10^5 −5.0 ± 4.3 −0.64 Combination of in situ and satellite observations (reference year, 2004) Signorini et al. (2013); using Ho et al. (2011) gas transfer param.
Scotian Shelf 1.2 × 10^5 −28 ± 0.72 −3.3 Model (2-year average, 2004–2005) Fennel and Wilkin (2009)
Gulf of Maine (without Georges Bank and Nantucket Shoals) 1.28 × 10^5 0.48 ± 2.6 0.061 Observation-based estimate (reference year, 2004) Signorini et al. (2013); using Ho et al. (2011) gas transfer param.
Gulf of Maine (without Georges Bank and Nantucket Shoals) 1.28 × 10^5 0.12 ± 0.96 0.015 Combination of in situ and satellite observations (reference year, 2004) Signorini et al. (2013); using Ho et al. (2011) gas transfer param.
Gulf of Maine (without Georges Bank and Nantucket Shoals) 1.28 × 10^5 4.6 ± 3.1 0.58 Observation-based estimate (5-year mean, 2004–2008) Vandemark et al. (2011)
Georges Bank and Nantucket Shoals 0.58 × 10^5 −8.5 ± 2.6 −0.49 Observation-based estimate (reference year, 2004) Signorini et al. (2013); using Ho et al. (2011) gas transfer param.
Georges Bank and Nantucket Shoals 0.58 × 10^5 −16 ± 2.9 −0.95 Combination of in situ and satellite observations (reference year, 2004) Signorini et al. (2013); using Ho et al. (2011) gas transfer param.
Gulf of Maine (with Georges Bank and Nantucket Shoals) 1.7 × 10^5 −20 ± 4.9 −3.4 Model (2-year average, 2004–2005) Fennel and Wilkin (2009)
Gulf of Maine (with Georges Bank and Nantucket Shoals) 0.87 × 10^5 −27 ± 8.4 −1.9 Model (4-year average, 2004–2007) Cahill et al. (2016)
Mid-Atlantic Bight (MAB) 1.25 × 10^5 −13 ± 8.3 −1.6 Observation-based estimate DeGrandpre et al. (2002)
Mid-Atlantic Bight (MAB) 1.25 × 10^5 −14 −1.8 Model (2004) Fennel et al. (2008)
Mid-Atlantic Bight (MAB) 0.93 × 10^5 −13 ± 3.2 −1.2 Observation-based estimate (reference year, 2004) Signorini et al. (2013); using Ho et al. (2011) gas transfer param.
Mid-Atlantic Bight (MAB) 0.93 × 10^5 −21 ± 2.3 −2.0 Combination of in situ and satellite observations (reference year, 2004) Signorini et al. (2013); using Ho et al. (2011) gas transfer param.
Mid-Atlantic Bight (MAB) 0.86 × 10^5 −11 ± 2.6 −0.92 Model (2-year average, 2004–2005) Fennel and Wilkin (2009)
Mid-Atlantic Bight (MAB) 1.15 × 10^5 −14 ± 2.4 −1.7 Model (4-year average, 2004-2007) Cahill et al. (2016)
South Atlantic Bight (SAB) 1.02 × 10^5 −5.8 ± 2.5 −0.59 Observation-based estimate Jiang et al. (2008)
South Atlantic Bight (SAB) 1.02 × 10^5 −8.2 ± 2.9 −0.83 Observation-based estimate (reference year, 2004) Signorini et al. (2013); using Ho et al. (2011) gas transfer param.
South Atlantic Bight (SAB) 1.02 × 10^5 −8.0 ± 1.9 −0.82 Combination of in situ and satellite observations (reference year, 2004) Signorini et al. (2013); using Ho et al. (2011) gas transfer param.
South Atlantic Bight (SAB) 0.92 × 10^5 −6 ± 2.4 −0.55 Model (4-year average, 2004–2007) Cahill et al. (2016)
2a41827f (17x6)
Region Area (km^2) Air-Sea Exchange Air-Sea Exchange Observation-Based Estimate or Model Reference
g C per m^2 per year (a,b) Tg C per year (a,b)
Gulf of Mexico (GMx) Gulf of Mexico (GMx) Gulf of Mexico (GMx) Gulf of Mexico (GMx) Gulf of Mexico (GMx) Gulf of Mexico (GMx)
Whole Gulf of Mexico 15.6 × 10^5 −2.3 ± 0.96 −3.6 Observation-based Robbins et al. (2014)
Whole Gulf of Mexico 15.6 × 10^5 −8.5 ± 6.5 −13 Model (7-year average, 2005–2010) Xue et al. (2016)
Open Gulf of Mexico 10.1 × 10^5 −5.8 ± 0.84 −5.8 Observation-based estimate Robbins et al. (2014)
Open Gulf of Mexico 10.1 × 10^5 −12 ± 5.5 −13 Model (7-year average, 2005–2010) Xue et al. (2016)
West Florida Shelf 1.5 × 10^5 4.4 ± 1.3 0.67 Observation-based estimate Robbins et al. (2014)
West Florida Shelf 1.5 × 10^5 4.6 ± 0.58 0.68 Model (7-year average, 2005–2010) Xue et al. (2016)
Northern Gulf of Mexico 1.5 × 10^5 −5.3 ± 4.4 −0.79 Observation-based estimate Robbins et al. (2014)
Northern Gulf of Mexico 1.5 × 10^5 −3.8 ± 8.9 −0.58 Model (7-year average, 2005–2010) Xue et al. (2016)
Northern Gulf of Mexico unknown −11 ± 44 Observation-based estimate Huang et al. (2015)
Northern Gulf of Mexico unknown −13 ± 3.6 Combination of in situ and satellite observations Lohrenz et al. (2018)
Western Gulf of Mexico 0.8 × 10^5 2.2 ± 0.6 0.17 Observation-based estimate Robbins et al. (2014)
Western Gulf of Mexico 0.8 × 10^5 4.1 ± 3.8 0.33 Model (7-year average, 2005–2010) Xue et al. (2016)
Mexico Shelf 1.8 × 10^5 −1.1 ± 0.6 −0.19 Observation-based estimate Robbins et al. (2014)
Mexico Shelf 1.8 × 10^5 −2.3 ± 4.2 −0.41 Model (7-year average, 2005–2010) Xue et al. (2016)
45c86447 (12x6)
Region Area (km^2) Air-Sea Exchange Air-Sea Exchange Observation-Based Estimate or Model Reference
g C per m^2 per year (a,b) Tg C per year (a,b)
North America Pacific Coast (NAPC) North America Pacific Coast (NAPC) North America Pacific Coast (NAPC) North America Pacific Coast (NAPC) North America Pacific Coast (NAPC) North America Pacific Coast (NAPC)
Gulf of Alaska 3 × 10^6 −11 −36 Observations, climatology of 1991–2011, 0 to 400 km offshore Evans and Mathis (2013)
British Columbia coastal ocean −35 Observations, 1995–2001 Evans et al. (2012)
British Columbia Vancouver Island shelf −6 Model, annual average Ianson and Allen (2002)
Oregon Shelf −3.6 ± 82 Observations inshore of 200-m isobath Evans et al. (2011)
Oregon Shelf −88 Observations Hales et al. (2005)
50° to 22°N 1.76 × 10^6 −7.9 −14 Satellite-based pprediction of pCO2 and satellite-based wind speed, within 370 km of coast Hales et al. (2012)
35° to 40°N 0.6 Model, 0 to 100 km from coast, 1999–2005 Fiechter et al. (2014)
40° to 45°N 0.6 −0.4 Model, 0 to 100 km from the coast, 1999–2005 Fiechter et al. (2014)
30° to 46°N 1.49 × 10^6 0.6 ± 2.4 0.9 ± 3.6 Model, 0 to 800 km from the coast, 12-year simulation with climatological forcing 30° to 46°N
759c1ab6 (15x6)
Region Area (km^2) Air-Sea Exchange Air-Sea Exchange Observation-Based Estimate or Model Reference
g C per m2 per year (a,b) Tg C per year (a,b)
North American Arctic (NAA) North American Arctic (NAA) North American Arctic (NAA) North American Arctic (NAA) North American Arctic (NAA) North American Arctic (NAA)
Chukchi Sea 2.9 × 10^5 −15 −4.4 Observations Evans et al. (2015b)
Chukchi Sea 5.95 × 10^5 −175 ± 44 −38 ± 7 Observations Bates et al. (2006)
Chukchi Sea 5.95 × 10^5 −35 −12.1 Observations Gao et al. (2012)
Chukchi Sea −17 ± 17 Satellite-based prediction of pCO2 and satellite-based wind speed Yasunaka et al. (2016)
Beaufort Sea (Amundsen Gulf ) −14 Observations Shadwick et al. (2011)
Beaufort Sea (Cape Bathurst Polynya) −44 ± 28 Observations Else et al. (2013)
Beaufort Sea 9.2 × 10^5 −4.4 −4.0 Observations Evans et al. (2015b)
Beaufort Sea −10 ± 15 Observations Mucci et al. (2010)
Western Arctic Coastal Ocean 1.2 × 10^6 −8.8 ± 4.8 −11 ± 5.7 Observations Evans et al. (2015b)
Hudson Bay 7.32 × 10^5 −3.2 ± 1.8 −0.58 ± 0.3 Observations Else et al. (2008)
Bering Sea 6.94 × 10^5 −9.6 −6.7 Observations Cross et al. (2014a)
Bering Sea 6.94 × 10^5 −5.3 −3.7 Observations Takahashi et al. (2009)
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