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@prefix dcterms: <http://purl.org/dc/terms/> .
@prefix xsd: <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix gcis: <http://data.globalchange.gov/gcis.owl#> .
@prefix cito: <http://purl.org/spar/cito/> .
@prefix biro: <http://purl.org/spar/biro/> .

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/second-state-carbon-cycle-report-soccr2-sustained-assessment-report/chapter/grasslands/finding/key-message-10-4>
   dcterms:identifier "key-message-10-4";
   gcis:findingNumber "10.4"^^xsd:string;
   gcis:findingStatement "Carbon stocks and net carbon uptake in grasslands can be maintained with appropriate land management including moderate levels of grazing. Fire suppression can lead to encroachment of woody vegetation and increasing carbon storage in mesic regions, at the expense of grassland vegetation (<em>high confidence, likely</em>)."^^xsd:string;
   gcis:isFindingOf <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/second-state-carbon-cycle-report-soccr2-sustained-assessment-report/chapter/grasslands>;
   gcis:isFindingOf <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/second-state-carbon-cycle-report-soccr2-sustained-assessment-report>;

## Properties of the finding:
   
   gcis:descriptionOfEvidenceBase "Studies of carbon fluxes using eddy covariance indicate that moderate grazing allows grasslands to continue to be net carbon sinks, but heavy grazing diminishes their capacity to take up carbon (Frank 2004; Morgan et al., 2016; Polley et al., 2008; Risch and Frank 2006). Soil inventory studies indicate that moderate to light grazing does not negatively affect carbon stocks (Conant et al., 2001, 2017), and improving grazing management can augment carbon stocks (Chambers et al., 2016). Carbon cycle responses to woody encroachment are determined from inventories of carbon stocks in vegetation and soils in plots that have been experiencing woody encroachment for different periods of time (Barger et al., 2011; Knapp et al., 2008a)."^^xsd:string;
   
   gcis:assessmentOfConfidenceBasedOnEvidence "There is high confidence with general agreement across several studies that moderate to light grazing will not have a negative impact on carbon cycling."^^xsd:string;
   
   gcis:newInformationAndRemainingUncertainties "Uncertainties in grazing management impacts on carbon cycling in grasslands stem mainly from the regional variations in soil carbon responses to management, from challenges in designing scientific studies that adequately represent real-world management practices, and from limitations faced when extrapolating plot-level studies to broader areas (Conant et al., 2017). Interactive effects of grazing, climate, soil type and plant community composition on carbon storage are not well constrained (McSherry and Ritchie 2013). The magnitude of carbon accumulation below ground in response to woody encroachment is poorly constrained, but change in carbon pools above ground is well known (Barger et al., 2011; Knapp et al., 2008a). Fire regimes are changing with increasing temperatures and altered vegetation; uncertainties in future fire risk add uncertainty to projections of carbon budgets."^^xsd:string;

   a gcis:Finding .

## This finding cites the following entities:



<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/second-state-carbon-cycle-report-soccr2-sustained-assessment-report/chapter/grasslands/finding/key-message-10-4>
   prov:wasDerivedFrom <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/second-state-carbon-cycle-report-soccr2-sustained-assessment-report/chapter/preface/figure/figurep-4>.