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@prefix dcterms: <http://purl.org/dc/terms/> . @prefix xsd: <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> . @prefix gcis: <http://data.globalchange.gov/gcis.owl#> . @prefix cito: <http://purl.org/spar/cito/> . @prefix biro: <http://purl.org/spar/biro/> . <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/second-state-carbon-cycle-report-soccr2-sustained-assessment-report/chapter/overview-of-the-global-carbon-cycle/finding/key-message-1-1> dcterms:identifier "key-message-1-1"; gcis:findingNumber "1.1"^^xsd:string; gcis:findingStatement "Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO<sub>2</sub>) has increased from a preindustrial abundance of 280 parts per million (ppm) of dry air to over 400 ppm in recent years—an increase of over 40%. As of July 2017, global average CO<sub>2</sub> was 406 ppm. Methane (CH<sub>4</sub>) has increased from a preindustrial abundance of about 700 parts per billion (ppb) of dry air to more than 1,850 ppb as of 2017—an increase of over 160%. The current understanding of the sources and sinks of atmospheric carbon supports the dominant role of human activities, especially fossil fuel combustion, in the rapid rise of atmospheric carbon (<em>very high confidence</em>)."^^xsd:string; gcis:isFindingOf <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/second-state-carbon-cycle-report-soccr2-sustained-assessment-report/chapter/overview-of-the-global-carbon-cycle>; gcis:isFindingOf <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/second-state-carbon-cycle-report-soccr2-sustained-assessment-report>; ## Properties of the finding: gcis:descriptionOfEvidenceBase "Preindustrial concentrations of CO<sub>2</sub>, CH<sub>4</sub>, and other trace species are known from measurements of air trapped in ice cores and firn from Greenland and Antarctica (e.g., MacFarling Meure et al., 2006). These measurements show that preindustrial levels of CO<sub>2</sub> and CH<sub>4</sub> were 280 ppm and 800 ppb, respectively. Contemporary global measurements of CO<sub>2</sub> and CH<sub>4</sub> are archived and documented at esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/ccgg/trends/global.html. Estimates of cumulative carbon emissions, along with atmospheric observations and estimates of net uptake by ocean or land, show that human emissions dominate the observed increase of CO<sub>2</sub> (Tans 2009). Analyses of “bottom-up” estimates of the CH<sub>4</sub> budget and atmospheric observations also support a strong role for anthropogenic emissions in the contemporary atmospheric CH<sub>4</sub> budget (Saunois et al., 2016)."^^xsd:string; gcis:assessmentOfConfidenceBasedOnEvidence "Observations clearly show substantial increases in greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations since preindustrial times resulting from anthropogenic GHG emissions and land-use change."^^xsd:string; gcis:newInformationAndRemainingUncertainties "There is a high degree of confidence in the overall increases in CO<sub>2</sub> and CH<sub>4</sub> since the preindustrial era. Attribution of these increases to anthropogenic emissions or natural emissions is subject to uncertainty (e.g., Saunois et al., 2016; Tans 2009). However, these uncertainties are unlikely to change the central conclusion that anthropogenic emissions have caused the significant increases in CO<sub>2</sub> and CH<sub>4</sub> since preindustrial times."^^xsd:string; a gcis:Finding . ## This finding cites the following entities: <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/second-state-carbon-cycle-report-soccr2-sustained-assessment-report/chapter/overview-of-the-global-carbon-cycle/finding/key-message-1-1> prov:wasDerivedFrom <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/second-state-carbon-cycle-report-soccr2-sustained-assessment-report/chapter/preface/figure/figurep-4>.