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@prefix dcterms: <> .
@prefix xsd: <> .
@prefix gcis: <> .
@prefix cito: <> .
@prefix biro: <> .

   dcterms:identifier "key-message-4-2";
   gcis:findingNumber "4.2"^^xsd:string;
   gcis:findingStatement "Many societal factors drive urban carbon emissions, but the urban built environment and the regulations and policies shaping urban form (e.g., land use) and technology (e.g., modes of transportation) play crucial roles. Such societal drivers can lock in dependence on fossil fuels in the absence of major technological, institutional, and behavioral change. Some fossil fuel–related infrastructure can have lifetimes of up to 50 years (<em>high confidence</em>)."^^xsd:string;
   gcis:isFindingOf <>;
   gcis:isFindingOf <>;

## Properties of the finding:
   gcis:descriptionOfEvidenceBase "Key Finding 2 involves societal factors that drive urban carbon emissions, including consumption and supply chains (Baiocchi and Minx 2010; Peters et al., 2011), wealth (Creutzig et al., 2015a), fuel prices (Creutzig 2014), lifestyle and norms (Patarasuk et al., 2016; Porse et al., 2016), urban form and density (Baiocchi et al., 2015; Creutzig et al., 2015a; Karathodorou et al., 2010; Mindali et al., 2004; Newman and Kenworthy 1989, 1999), technology (Kennedy et al., 2009, 2014, 2015), and climate (Baiocchi et al., 2015; Creutzig et al., 2015a; Glaeser and Kahn 2010; Kennedy et al., 2015). Research continues to establish the relative permanence of large technological and infrastructural systems in urban areas. For example, fossil fuel–burning infrastructures have lifetimes up to 50 years, leading to systemic dependence (i.e., “lock-in”) on fossil fuel–based technology (Unruh 2000; Seto et al., 2016; Erickson et al., 2015)."^^xsd:string;
   gcis:assessmentOfConfidenceBasedOnEvidence "Studies are emerging that investigate these relationships, but more research is needed to understand the processes."^^xsd:string;
   gcis:newInformationAndRemainingUncertainties "Increasing numbers of studies examine relationships between urban density and 1) atmospheric emissions and 2) building energy use. Uncertainty exists relative to the ability of cities to change their infrastructure because of cost considerations and municipal regulations, as well as state and national regulations that affect city form and infrastructure. Relationships among the core elements of carbon lock-in (i.e., technological, institutional, and behavioral) are poorly understood and involve interactions among scales of governance larger than urban areas. All these aspects vary widely across cities and North American countries."^^xsd:string;

   a gcis:Finding .

## This finding cites the following entities:

   prov:wasDerivedFrom <>.