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@prefix dcterms: <http://purl.org/dc/terms/> . @prefix xsd: <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> . @prefix gcis: <http://data.globalchange.gov/gcis.owl#> . @prefix cito: <http://purl.org/spar/cito/> . @prefix biro: <http://purl.org/spar/biro/> . <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/second-state-carbon-cycle-report-soccr2-sustained-assessment-report/chapter/understanding-urban-carbon-fluxes/finding/key-message-4-4> dcterms:identifier "key-message-4-4"; gcis:findingNumber "4.4"^^xsd:string; gcis:findingStatement "Improvements in air quality and human health and the reduction of the urban heat island are important co-benefits of urban carbon emissions mitigation (<em>high confidence, very likely</em>)."^^xsd:string; gcis:isFindingOf <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/second-state-carbon-cycle-report-soccr2-sustained-assessment-report/chapter/understanding-urban-carbon-fluxes>; gcis:isFindingOf <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/second-state-carbon-cycle-report-soccr2-sustained-assessment-report>; ## Properties of the finding: gcis:descriptionOfEvidenceBase "Numerous studies contribute to Key Finding 4, including research on the impacts of carbon emissions reductions on local air pollution, related human health benefits, and reduction of waste heat discharge (Harlan and Ruddell 2011; Huang et al., 2013; Jacobson and Ten Hoeve 2012; Milner et al., 2012; Ostro et al., 2011; Sarofim et al., 2016; Viguié and Hallegatte 2012)."^^xsd:string; gcis:assessmentOfConfidenceBasedOnEvidence "There is broad agreement about the benefits of reducing carbon emissions. Major uncertainties are related to assessing quantitatively the impacts and precise relationships between carbon emissions reductions and urban health and environmental benefits."^^xsd:string; gcis:newInformationAndRemainingUncertainties "Uncertainties include the precise magnitude of health and environmental benefits associated with reductions of carbon emissions. Benefits will vary with a number of factors such as urban population sociodemographics, urban meteorology, composition of emissions sources, and energy fuel mix. Tradeoffs require further research and remain uncertain."^^xsd:string; a gcis:Finding . ## This finding cites the following entities: <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/second-state-carbon-cycle-report-soccr2-sustained-assessment-report/chapter/understanding-urban-carbon-fluxes/finding/key-message-4-4> prov:wasDerivedFrom <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/second-state-carbon-cycle-report-soccr2-sustained-assessment-report/chapter/preface/figure/figurep-4>.