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@prefix dcterms: <http://purl.org/dc/terms/> .
@prefix xsd: <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix gcis: <http://data.globalchange.gov/gcis.owl#> .
@prefix cito: <http://purl.org/spar/cito/> .
@prefix biro: <http://purl.org/spar/biro/> .

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/usgcrp-climate-human-health-assessment-2016/chapter/food-safety-nutrition-and-distribution/finding/extreme-weather-limits-access-to-safe-foods>
   dcterms:identifier "extreme-weather-limits-access-to-safe-foods";
   gcis:findingNumber "7.4"^^xsd:string;
   gcis:findingStatement "Increases in the frequency or intensity of some extreme weather events associated with climate change will increase disruptions of food distribution by damaging existing infrastructure or slowing food shipments [Likely, High Confidence]. These impediments lead to increased risk for food damage, spoilage, or contamination, which will limit availability of and access to safe and nutritious food, depending on the extent of disruption and the resilience of food distribution infrastructure [Medium Confidence]."^^xsd:string;
   gcis:isFindingOf <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/usgcrp-climate-human-health-assessment-2016/chapter/food-safety-nutrition-and-distribution>;
   gcis:isFindingOf <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/usgcrp-climate-human-health-assessment-2016>;

## Properties of the finding:
   gcis:findingProcess "The chapter was developed through technical discussions of relevant evidence and expert deliberation by the report authors at several workshops, teleconferences, and email exchanges. The authors considered inputs and comments submitted by the public, the National Academies of Sciences, and Federal agencies. For additional information on the overall report process, see Appendices <a href=\"https://health2016.globalchange.gov/node/103\">2</a> and <a href=\"https://health2016.globalchange.gov/node/104\">3</a>. The author team also engaged in targeted consultations during multiple exchanges with contributing authors, who provided additional expertise on subsets of the Traceable Accounts associated with each Key Finding.  <br/><br/> Because the impacts of climate change on food production, prices, and trade for the United States and globally have been widely examined elsewhere, including in the most recent report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, this chapter focuses only on the impacts of climate change on food safety, nutrition, and distribution in the context of human health in the United States. Many nutritional deficiencies and food-related illnesses are of critical importance globally, particularly those causing diarrheal epidemics or mycotoxin poisoning, and affect U.S. interests abroad; but the primary focus of this chapter is to address climate impacts on the food safety concerns most important in the United States. Thus, the literature cited in this chapter is specific to the United States or of demonstrated relevance to developed countries. The placement of health threats from seafood was determined based on pre- and post-ingestion risks: while ingestion of contaminated seafood is discussed in this chapter, details on the exposure pathways of water-related pathogens (for example, through recreational or drinking water) are discussed in <a href=\"https://health2016.globalchange.gov/node/13\">Chapter 6: Water-Related Illness</a>."^^xsd:string;
   
   gcis:descriptionOfEvidenceBase "It is well documented in assessment literature that climate models project an increase in the frequency and intensity of some extreme weather events. Because the food transportation system moves large volumes at a time, has limited alternative routes, and is dependent on the timing of the growing and harvest seasons, it is likely that the projected increase in the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events will also increase the frequency of food supply chain disruptions (including risks to food availability and access) and the risk for food spoilage and contamination. Recent extreme events have demonstrated a clear linkage to the disruption of food distribution and access. Case studies show that such events, particularly those that result in power outages, may also expose food to temperatures inadequate for safe storage, with increased risk of illness. For example, New York City&rsquo;s Department of Health and Mental Hygiene detected a statistically significant citywide increase in diarrheal illness resulting from consumption of spoiled foods due to lost refrigeration capabilities after a 2003 power outage."^^xsd:string;
   
   gcis:assessmentOfConfidenceBasedOnEvidence "Given the evidence base and current uncertainties, there is <b>high confidence</b> that projected increases in the frequency and severity of extreme events will <b>likely</b> lead to damage of existing food supplies and disruptions to food distribution infrastructure. There is <b>medium confidence</b> that these damages and disruptions will increase risk for food damage, spoilage, or contamination, which will limit availability and access to safe and nutritious foods because of uncertainties surrounding the extent of the disruptions and individual, community, or institutional sensitivity to impacts.  There are further uncertainties surrounding how the specific dynamics of the extreme event, such as the geographic location in which it occurs, as well as the social vulnerabilities or adaptive capacity of the populations at risk, will impact human health."^^xsd:string;
   
   gcis:newInformationAndRemainingUncertainties "The extent to which climate-related disruptions to the food distribution system will affect food supply, safety, and human health, including incidences of illnesses, remains uncertain.  This is because the impacts of any one extreme weather event are determined by the type, severity, and intensity of the event, the geographic location in which it occurs, infrastructure resiliency, and the social vulnerabilities or adaptive capacity of the populations at risk."^^xsd:string;

   a gcis:Finding .

## This finding cites the following entities:


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