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@prefix dcterms: <http://purl.org/dc/terms/> .
@prefix xsd: <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix gcis: <http://data.globalchange.gov/gcis.owl#> .
@prefix cito: <http://purl.org/spar/cito/> .
@prefix biro: <http://purl.org/spar/biro/> .

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/usgcrp-climate-human-health-assessment-2016/chapter/mental-health-and-well-being/finding/climate-change-threats-result-mental-health-consequences-social-impacts>
   dcterms:identifier "climate-change-threats-result-mental-health-consequences-social-impacts";
   gcis:findingNumber "8.3"^^xsd:string;
   gcis:findingStatement "Many people will experience adverse mental health outcomes and social impacts from the threat of climate change, the perceived direct experience of climate change, and changes to one&rsquo;s local environment [High Confidence]. Media and popular culture representations of climate change influence stress responses and mental health and well-being [Medium Confidence]."^^xsd:string;
   gcis:isFindingOf <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/usgcrp-climate-human-health-assessment-2016/chapter/mental-health-and-well-being>;
   gcis:isFindingOf <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/usgcrp-climate-human-health-assessment-2016>;

## Properties of the finding:
   gcis:findingProcess "The chapter was developed through technical discussions of relevant evidence and expert deliberation by the report authors at several workshops, teleconferences, and email exchanges. The authors considered inputs and comments submitted by the public, the National Academies of Sciences, and Federal agencies. For additional information on the overall report process, see Appendices <a href=\"https://health2016.globalchange.gov/node/103\">2</a>&ndash;<a href=\"https://health2016.globalchange.gov/node/103\">3</a>. <br/><br/> Areas of focus for the Mental Health and Well-Being chapter were determined based on the most relevant available scientific literature relating to mental health, wellness, and climate change, as well as the mental health impacts of events associated with climate change. Much of the evidence on these impacts has been compiled in countries outside the United States; however, the scenarios are similar and the evidence directly relevant to the situation in the United States, and thus this literature has been considered in the chapter. The evidence-base on mental health and wellness following extreme weather disasters is both well-established and relevant to climate change. The existence of highly relevant scientific literature on specific concerns directly influenced by climate change&mdash;such as the effects of extreme heat, stress associated with the threat and perception of climate change, and special population risks&mdash;resulted in the inclusion of these more targeted topics. Although significant scientific literature for resilience exists, in-depth discussions of adaptation, coping, and treatment approaches are outside the scope of this chapter, but are discussed in brief in the Resilience and Recovery section."^^xsd:string;
   
   gcis:descriptionOfEvidenceBase "A strong combination of mental health epidemiological research, social science-based national survey research, social and clinical psychology, environmental risk perception research, and disaster mental health research supports the finding that the threat of climate change and perceptions of its related physical environment changes and extreme events together constitute a significant environmental stressor. <br/><br/> A large number of recent studies that have evaluated responses to the hybrid risk (risk that is part natural and part human-caused) of climate change impacts specifically reveal that many individuals experience a range of adverse psychological responses."^^xsd:string;
   
   gcis:assessmentOfConfidenceBasedOnEvidence "The large body of well-documented scientific evidence provides <b>high confidence</b> that adverse mental health outcomes and social impacts can result from the threat of climate change, the perceived experience of climate change,and changes to one&rsquo;s local environment. Emerging evidence suggests there is <b>medium confidence</b> that media representations of climate change influence stress responses and mental health and well-being."^^xsd:string;
   
   gcis:newInformationAndRemainingUncertainties "Major uncertainties derive from the distinction between people&rsquo;s objective and subjective exposure and experience of environmental threats. The multimedia information environment to which individuals are exposed and its coverage of climate change and related events can contribute to complicated public perceptions and strong emotional responses related to climate change as a social, environmental, and political issue. If media exposure is inaccurate or discouraging, that could cause undue stress. However, accurate risk information dissemination can result in adaptive and preventive individual and collective action. The relative dearth of long term impact assessment and monitoring programs relating to the psychosocial impacts of climate change necessitates reliance on smaller-scale, typically cross-sectional studies and research surveys that are often limited by their use of single-item indicators rather than standardized, climate change-specific, multi-item psychometric measures."^^xsd:string;

   a gcis:Finding .

## This finding cites the following entities:


<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/usgcrp-climate-human-health-assessment-2016/chapter/mental-health-and-well-being/finding/climate-change-threats-result-mental-health-consequences-social-impacts>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1016/S0272-4944(88)80023-9>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/1033040b-fcff-419e-ad20-8a3a7b0c5013>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/usgcrp-climate-human-health-assessment-2016/chapter/mental-health-and-well-being/finding/climate-change-threats-result-mental-health-consequences-social-impacts>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/unesco-globalenvironments-2013>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/1497a2db-b62f-4bcb-8e53-f22692c416b4>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/usgcrp-climate-human-health-assessment-2016/chapter/mental-health-and-well-being/finding/climate-change-threats-result-mental-health-consequences-social-impacts>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/book/3c7bbde2-e878-4456-a472-87e06b13ff81>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/169b6908-d301-4da7-aeee-43cce986c86c>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/usgcrp-climate-human-health-assessment-2016/chapter/mental-health-and-well-being/finding/climate-change-threats-result-mental-health-consequences-social-impacts>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/book/012d6f7b-9a6e-4473-a334-a12fa730c4ab>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/1dad28b6-fe27-4e03-9630-8fda36305ec5>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/usgcrp-climate-human-health-assessment-2016/chapter/mental-health-and-well-being/finding/climate-change-threats-result-mental-health-consequences-social-impacts>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1016/j.jenvp.2009.11.010>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/26a30317-5e80-4272-9f1e-eb6d2a800a4d>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/usgcrp-climate-human-health-assessment-2016/chapter/mental-health-and-well-being/finding/climate-change-threats-result-mental-health-consequences-social-impacts>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1016/j.envres.2010.09.007>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/2a7f3b81-6429-4752-904e-7f5fa3686d29>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/usgcrp-climate-human-health-assessment-2016/chapter/mental-health-and-well-being/finding/climate-change-threats-result-mental-health-consequences-social-impacts>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1037/a0023141>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/34647534-8863-4fde-b8d0-f24bcdc4fcc6>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/usgcrp-climate-human-health-assessment-2016/chapter/mental-health-and-well-being/finding/climate-change-threats-result-mental-health-consequences-social-impacts>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1080/13669870600613658>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/40b214b0-1829-4411-9371-4aa06136f493>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/usgcrp-climate-human-health-assessment-2016/chapter/mental-health-and-well-being/finding/climate-change-threats-result-mental-health-consequences-social-impacts>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1080/13669870802586512>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/56e6c997-9cde-4f3e-8dd7-e6e737a5a157>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/usgcrp-climate-human-health-assessment-2016/chapter/mental-health-and-well-being/finding/climate-change-threats-result-mental-health-consequences-social-impacts>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/book/f1e01b90-53e7-4996-8ecb-7a03d54eb41e>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/6488df22-3c4d-4530-b988-10e3e5b9ab3e>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/usgcrp-climate-human-health-assessment-2016/chapter/mental-health-and-well-being/finding/climate-change-threats-result-mental-health-consequences-social-impacts>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/book/6220f91e-8478-44bf-be9f-e0df6bcf1e6e>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/7ad54684-f950-46c7-a03a-92535cea27bf>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/usgcrp-climate-human-health-assessment-2016/chapter/mental-health-and-well-being/finding/climate-change-threats-result-mental-health-consequences-social-impacts>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1007/s10584-012-0513-6>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/88a64708-aabf-40b4-8677-0021edda378f>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/usgcrp-climate-human-health-assessment-2016/chapter/mental-health-and-well-being/finding/climate-change-threats-result-mental-health-consequences-social-impacts>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1037/a0023412>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/8eccc146-c874-49ff-ba79-160c0e12c158>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/usgcrp-climate-human-health-assessment-2016/chapter/mental-health-and-well-being/finding/climate-change-threats-result-mental-health-consequences-social-impacts>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1037/a0023220>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/9467cf71-753b-49a7-891b-04da863e71ad>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/usgcrp-climate-human-health-assessment-2016/chapter/mental-health-and-well-being/finding/climate-change-threats-result-mental-health-consequences-social-impacts>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/public-risk-perceptions-understandings-responses-climate-change>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/947e6dc0-63cf-4a74-947b-b24b9f2ab9c9>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/usgcrp-climate-human-health-assessment-2016/chapter/mental-health-and-well-being/finding/climate-change-threats-result-mental-health-consequences-social-impacts>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1186/1752-4458-2-13>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/9845a991-d58b-409b-91b9-670cc383d030>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/usgcrp-climate-human-health-assessment-2016/chapter/mental-health-and-well-being/finding/climate-change-threats-result-mental-health-consequences-social-impacts>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2012.08.003>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/9ce52883-f68f-48dc-875f-88f932e8f916>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/usgcrp-climate-human-health-assessment-2016/chapter/mental-health-and-well-being/finding/climate-change-threats-result-mental-health-consequences-social-impacts>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1177/0963662512440913>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/9fcf79bd-416e-4ede-9e00-262b39095cab>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/usgcrp-climate-human-health-assessment-2016/chapter/mental-health-and-well-being/finding/climate-change-threats-result-mental-health-consequences-social-impacts>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/book/d5dc224b-e5a2-4753-b5f5-fb55c26f4f10>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/a2ef9cb1-3891-49f7-aa87-7d232b1bc47b>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/usgcrp-climate-human-health-assessment-2016/chapter/mental-health-and-well-being/finding/climate-change-threats-result-mental-health-consequences-social-impacts>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/book/ff08562c-49aa-4b2f-b7be-aaf93d86487b>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/a7957dc8-1ead-4328-8250-a695f5f62c30>.