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@prefix xsd: <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix gcis: <http://data.globalchange.gov/gcis.owl#> .
@prefix cito: <http://purl.org/spar/cito/> .
@prefix biro: <http://purl.org/spar/biro/> .

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/usgcrp-climate-human-health-assessment-2016/chapter/mental-health-and-well-being/finding/exposure-weather-related-disasters-results-mental-health-consequences>
   dcterms:identifier "exposure-weather-related-disasters-results-mental-health-consequences";
   gcis:findingNumber "8.1"^^xsd:string;
   gcis:findingStatement "Many people exposed to climate-related or weather-related disasters experience stress and serious mental health consequences. Depending on the type of the disaster, these serious mental health consequences include post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and general anxiety, which often occur at the same time [Very High Confidence]. The majority of affected people recover over time, although a significant proportion of exposed individuals develop chronic psychological dysfunction [High Confidence]."^^xsd:string;
   gcis:isFindingOf <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/usgcrp-climate-human-health-assessment-2016/chapter/mental-health-and-well-being>;
   gcis:isFindingOf <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/usgcrp-climate-human-health-assessment-2016>;

## Properties of the finding:
   gcis:findingProcess "The chapter was developed through technical discussions of relevant evidence and expert deliberation by the report authors at several workshops, teleconferences, and email exchanges. The authors considered inputs and comments submitted by the public, the National Academies of Sciences, and Federal agencies. For additional information on the overall report process, see Appendices <a href=\"https://health2016.globalchange.gov/node/103\">2</a>&ndash;<a href=\"https://health2016.globalchange.gov/node/103\">3</a>. <br/><br/> Areas of focus for the Mental Health and Well-Being chapter were determined based on the most relevant available scientific literature relating to mental health, wellness, and climate change, as well as the mental health impacts of events associated with climate change. Much of the evidence on these impacts has been compiled in countries outside the United States; however, the scenarios are similar and the evidence directly relevant to the situation in the United States, and thus this literature has been considered in the chapter. The evidence-base on mental health and wellness following extreme weather disasters is both well-established and relevant to climate change. The existence of highly relevant scientific literature on specific concerns directly influenced by climate change&mdash;such as the effects of extreme heat, stress associated with the threat and perception of climate change, and special population risks&mdash;resulted in the inclusion of these more targeted topics. Although significant scientific literature for resilience exists, in-depth discussions of adaptation, coping, and treatment approaches are outside the scope of this chapter, but are discussed in brief in the Resilience and Recovery section."^^xsd:string;
   
   gcis:descriptionOfEvidenceBase "Very strong evidence from multiple studies shows a consensus that many people exposed to climate- or weather-related natural disasters experience stress reactions and serious psychological harm, which often occur simultaneously. Though many of these studies describe the mental health impacts of specific historical events, they demonstrate the types of mental health issues that will continue to arise as climate change leads to increases in the frequency, severity, and duration of extreme climate- and weather-related events such as floods, hurricanes, droughts, and wildfires. Strong support is found in a number of recent studies for the potential for climate change-related psychological effects, including grief/bereavement, increased substance use or misuse, and thoughts of suicide. <br/><br/> Research on individual resilience and recovery shows that a majority of individuals psychologically affected by a traumatic event will recover over time. However, a convincing body of recent research shows that a significant proportion (typically up to 20%) of individuals directly exposed to the event will develop chronic levels of psychological dysfunction, which may not get better or be resolved."^^xsd:string;
   
   gcis:assessmentOfConfidenceBasedOnEvidence "Numerous and recent studies have examined the mental health and wellness impacts of climate- and weather-related events among a variety of populations. Taken as a whole, the strength of this scientific evidence provides <b>very high confidence</b> regarding the adverse impacts of environmental changes and events associated with global climate change on individual and societal mental health and well-being, and <b>high confidence</b> that these impacts will be long-lasting for a significant portion of the impacted population."^^xsd:string;
   
   gcis:newInformationAndRemainingUncertainties "There remains some uncertainty about the degree to which future extreme weather and climate events will impact mental health and wellness. An increase in the scope, frequency, or severity of these events will increase the number of people impacted and the degree to which they are affected. However, efforts that effectively increase preparation for both the physical and psychological consequences of extreme weather- and climate-related events could decrease the impact on mental health and well-being."^^xsd:string;

   a gcis:Finding .

## This finding cites the following entities:


<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/usgcrp-climate-human-health-assessment-2016/chapter/mental-health-and-well-being/finding/exposure-weather-related-disasters-results-mental-health-consequences>
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<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/usgcrp-climate-human-health-assessment-2016/chapter/mental-health-and-well-being/finding/exposure-weather-related-disasters-results-mental-health-consequences>
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<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/usgcrp-climate-human-health-assessment-2016/chapter/mental-health-and-well-being/finding/exposure-weather-related-disasters-results-mental-health-consequences>
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