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@prefix dcterms: <http://purl.org/dc/terms/> .
@prefix xsd: <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix gcis: <http://data.globalchange.gov/gcis.owl#> .
@prefix cito: <http://purl.org/spar/cito/> .
@prefix biro: <http://purl.org/spar/biro/> .

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/usgcrp-climate-human-health-assessment-2016/chapter/mental-health-and-well-being/finding/specific-groups-people-higher-risk>
   dcterms:identifier "specific-groups-people-higher-risk";
   gcis:findingNumber "8.2"^^xsd:string;
   gcis:findingStatement "Specific groups of people are at higher risk for distress and other adverse mental health consequences from exposure to climate-related or weather-related disasters. These groups include children, the elderly, women (especially pregnant and post-partum women), people with preexisting mental illness, the economically disadvantaged, the homeless, and first responders [High Confidence]. Communities that rely on the natural environment for sustenance and livelihood, as well as populations living in areas most susceptible to specific climate change events, are at increased risk for adverse mental health outcomes [High Confidence]."^^xsd:string;
   gcis:isFindingOf <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/usgcrp-climate-human-health-assessment-2016/chapter/mental-health-and-well-being>;
   gcis:isFindingOf <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/usgcrp-climate-human-health-assessment-2016>;

## Properties of the finding:
   gcis:findingProcess "The chapter was developed through technical discussions of relevant evidence and expert deliberation by the report authors at several workshops, teleconferences, and email exchanges. The authors considered inputs and comments submitted by the public, the National Academies of Sciences, and Federal agencies. For additional information on the overall report process, see Appendices <a href=\"https://health2016.globalchange.gov/node/103\">2</a>&ndash;<a href=\"https://health2016.globalchange.gov/node/103\">3</a>. <br/><br/> Areas of focus for the Mental Health and Well-Being chapter were determined based on the most relevant available scientific literature relating to mental health, wellness, and climate change, as well as the mental health impacts of events associated with climate change. Much of the evidence on these impacts has been compiled in countries outside the United States; however, the scenarios are similar and the evidence directly relevant to the situation in the United States, and thus this literature has been considered in the chapter. The evidence-base on mental health and wellness following extreme weather disasters is both well-established and relevant to climate change. The existence of highly relevant scientific literature on specific concerns directly influenced by climate change&mdash;such as the effects of extreme heat, stress associated with the threat and perception of climate change, and special population risks&mdash;resulted in the inclusion of these more targeted topics. Although significant scientific literature for resilience exists, in-depth discussions of adaptation, coping, and treatment approaches are outside the scope of this chapter, but are discussed in brief in the Resilience and Recovery section."^^xsd:string;
   
   gcis:descriptionOfEvidenceBase "Multiple studies have identified specific populations within the United States that are particularly vulnerable to the mental health impacts of climate change events. Some evidence suggests that children are at particular risk for distress, anxiety, and PTSD. Highly cited studies of the elderly show that high rates of physical and mental health disorders leave them more vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. A large body of post-disaster studies shows that women often have a higher prevalence of PTSD and other adverse psychological outcomes.  Research strongly suggests that people who currently suffer from psychological disorders will face additional challenges from climate change impacts. Strong evidence suggests that people living in poverty disproportionately experience the most negative impacts, in part because they have less capacity to evacuate to avoid natural disasters, and because they are more frequently exposed to harmful environmental conditions such as heat waves and poor air quality. Similarly, the majority (91%) of homeless populations live in urban and suburban areas, where they are more vulnerable to certain weather- and climate-related health risks. <br/><br/> A number of studies of disaster responders point to an increased risk of mental and physical health problems following climate-related disasters. More frequent and intense weather events will increase the likelihood of this threat. <br/><br/> Several studies show that those living in drought-prone areas are vulnerable to high levels of distress. In addition, evidence suggests those living in Arctic or other coastal areas, such as Indigenous communities or tribes, tend to be more reliant on natural resources that could be diminished by climate change, which can lead to an increased risk of poor mental health outcomes."^^xsd:string;
   
   gcis:assessmentOfConfidenceBasedOnEvidence "The combined breadth and strength of the scientific literature supports <b>high confidence</b> that certain vulnerable populations will face psychological tolls in the aftermath of climate-related disasters. An increase in adverse climate-related events will result in increased exposure of such populations of concern and an increased likelihood of elevated risk for mental health consequences. There is also <b>high confidence</b> that natural-resource-dependent communities and populations living in areas most susceptible to specific climate change events are at increased risk for adverse mental health outcomes."^^xsd:string;
   
   gcis:newInformationAndRemainingUncertainties "While there is uncertainty around the magnitude of effect, there is general agreement that climate-related disasters cause emotional and behavioral responses that will increase the likelihood of a mental illness or effect. Understanding how exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity change over time and location for specific populations of concern is challenging. Uncertainties remain with respect to the underlying social determinants of health, public health interventions or outreach, adaptation options, and climate impacts at fine local scales."^^xsd:string;

   a gcis:Finding .

## This finding cites the following entities:


<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/usgcrp-climate-human-health-assessment-2016/chapter/mental-health-and-well-being/finding/specific-groups-people-higher-risk>
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<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/usgcrp-climate-human-health-assessment-2016/chapter/mental-health-and-well-being/finding/specific-groups-people-higher-risk>
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<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/usgcrp-climate-human-health-assessment-2016/chapter/mental-health-and-well-being/finding/specific-groups-people-higher-risk>
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<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/usgcrp-climate-human-health-assessment-2016/chapter/mental-health-and-well-being/finding/specific-groups-people-higher-risk>
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<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/usgcrp-climate-human-health-assessment-2016/chapter/mental-health-and-well-being/finding/specific-groups-people-higher-risk>
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<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/usgcrp-climate-human-health-assessment-2016/chapter/mental-health-and-well-being/finding/specific-groups-people-higher-risk>
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<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/usgcrp-climate-human-health-assessment-2016/chapter/mental-health-and-well-being/finding/specific-groups-people-higher-risk>
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<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/usgcrp-climate-human-health-assessment-2016/chapter/mental-health-and-well-being/finding/specific-groups-people-higher-risk>
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<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/usgcrp-climate-human-health-assessment-2016/chapter/mental-health-and-well-being/finding/specific-groups-people-higher-risk>
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<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/usgcrp-climate-human-health-assessment-2016/chapter/mental-health-and-well-being/finding/specific-groups-people-higher-risk>
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<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/usgcrp-climate-human-health-assessment-2016/chapter/mental-health-and-well-being/finding/specific-groups-people-higher-risk>
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<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/usgcrp-climate-human-health-assessment-2016/chapter/mental-health-and-well-being/finding/specific-groups-people-higher-risk>
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<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/usgcrp-climate-human-health-assessment-2016/chapter/mental-health-and-well-being/finding/specific-groups-people-higher-risk>
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<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/usgcrp-climate-human-health-assessment-2016/chapter/mental-health-and-well-being/finding/specific-groups-people-higher-risk>
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