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@prefix gcis: <http://data.globalchange.gov/gcis.owl#> .
@prefix cito: <http://purl.org/spar/cito/> .
@prefix biro: <http://purl.org/spar/biro/> .

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/usgcrp-climate-human-health-assessment-2016/chapter/populations-of-concern/finding/health-impacts-vary-with-age-and-life-stage>
   dcterms:identifier "health-impacts-vary-with-age-and-life-stage";
   gcis:findingNumber "9.2"^^xsd:string;
   gcis:findingStatement "People experience different inherent sensitivities to the impacts of climate change at different ages and life stages [High Confidence]. For example, the very young and the very old are particularly sensitive to climate-related health impacts."^^xsd:string;
   gcis:isFindingOf <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/usgcrp-climate-human-health-assessment-2016/chapter/populations-of-concern>;
   gcis:isFindingOf <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/usgcrp-climate-human-health-assessment-2016>;

## Properties of the finding:
   gcis:findingProcess "The chapter was developed through technical discussions of relevant evidence and expert deliberation by the report authors at several workshops, teleconferences, and email exchanges. The authors considered inputs and comments submitted by the public, the National Academies of Sciences, and Federal agencies. For additional information on the overall report process, see Appendices <a href=\"https://health2016.globalchange.gov/node/103\">2</a>&ndash;<a href=\"https://health2016.globalchange.gov/node/104\">3</a>.<br/><br/> The author team identified a number of populations affected by climate change health impacts, including communities of color and low-income, immigrant, and limited English proficiency groups; Indigenous populations; children and pregnant women; older adults; certain occupational groups; persons with disabilities; and persons with chronic medical conditions. This list of populations was identified to reflect current understandings related to how the health of particular groups of people or particular places are affected by climate change in the United States. While not exhaustive, these populations of concern are those most commonly identified and discussed in reviews of climate change health impacts on vulnerable populations. In this chapter, the order of these populations is not prioritized. While there are other populations that may be threatened disproportionately by climate change, the authors focused the sections of this chapter on populations for which there is substantive literature. In addition to this chapter&rsquo;s summary of vulnerable populations, each of the health outcome chapters in the report includes discussion of populations of concern. Some populations may be covered more extensively in these other chapters; for instance, homeless populations are discussed in <a href=\"https://health2016.globalchange.gov/node/15\">Chapter 8: Mental Health</a>, as the literature on this population focuses primarily on mental health."^^xsd:string;
   
   gcis:descriptionOfEvidenceBase "There is strong, consistent evidence from multiple studies that children have inherent sensitivities to climate-related health impacts. There are multiple, high-quality studies concerning the impact of changes in ground-level ozone, particulate matter, and aeroallergens on increases in childhood asthma episodes and other adverse respiratory effects in children. In addition, the literature supports a finding that children are vulnerable to waterborne pathogens in drinking water and through exposures while swimming. There is a positive and statistically significant association between heavy rain and emergency department visits for children with gastrointestinal illness, though evidence comes from regional studies and is not at the national scale. The science also supports a finding that children&rsquo;s mental health is affected by exposures to traumatic weather events, which can undermine cognitive development and contribute to psychiatric disorders. <br/><br/> There is also strong, consistent evidence from multiple studies that older adults have inherent sensitivities to climate-related health impacts. In particular, exposure to extreme ambient temperature is an important determinant of health in older adults and has been associated with increased hospital admissions for cardiovascular, respiratory, and metabolic disorders. In addition, older adults are particularly affected by extreme weather events that compromise the availability and safety of food and water supplies; interrupt communications, utilities, and emergency services; and destroy or damage homes and the built environment. Some functional and mobility impairments make older adults less able to evacuate when necessary."^^xsd:string;
   
   gcis:assessmentOfConfidenceBasedOnEvidence "Based on the evidence presented in the peer-reviewed literature, there is <b>high</b> <b>confidence</b> that a wide range of health effects exacerbated by climate change will be experienced by vulnerable age groups, especially young children and older adults. Both qualitative and quantitative studies have been published about the effects of age or life stage on vulnerability to health impacts, and that evidence is consistent and of good quality."^^xsd:string;
   
   gcis:newInformationAndRemainingUncertainties "There is less information with which to quantify climate-related impacts on children and older adults at a national level given limited data availability. Some studies of age-related vulnerability have limited geographic scope or focus on single events in particular locations. Nevertheless, multiple factors, all with some degree of uncertainty, converge to determine climate-related vulnerability across age groups."^^xsd:string;

   a gcis:Finding .

## This finding cites the following entities:


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