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@prefix dcterms: <http://purl.org/dc/terms/> .
@prefix xsd: <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix gcis: <http://data.globalchange.gov/gcis.owl#> .
@prefix cito: <http://purl.org/spar/cito/> .
@prefix biro: <http://purl.org/spar/biro/> .

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/usgcrp-climate-human-health-assessment-2016/chapter/populations-of-concern/finding/social-determinants-health-interact-climate-factors-affect-health-risk>
   dcterms:identifier "social-determinants-health-interact-climate-factors-affect-health-risk";
   gcis:findingNumber "9.3"^^xsd:string;
   gcis:findingStatement "Climate change threatens the health of people and communities by affecting exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity [High Confidence]. Social determinants of health, such as those related to socioeconomic factors and health disparities, may amplify, moderate, or otherwise influence climate-related health effects, particularly when these factors occur simultaneously or close in time or space [High Confidence]."^^xsd:string;
   gcis:isFindingOf <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/usgcrp-climate-human-health-assessment-2016/chapter/populations-of-concern>;
   gcis:isFindingOf <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/usgcrp-climate-human-health-assessment-2016>;

## Properties of the finding:
   gcis:findingProcess "The chapter was developed through technical discussions of relevant evidence and expert deliberation by the report authors at several workshops, teleconferences, and email exchanges. The authors considered inputs and comments submitted by the public, the National Academies of Sciences, and Federal agencies. For additional information on the overall report process, see Appendices <a href=\"https://health2016.globalchange.gov/node/103\">2</a>&ndash;<a href=\"https://health2016.globalchange.gov/node/104\">3</a>.<br/><br/> The author team identified a number of populations affected by climate change health impacts, including communities of color and low-income, immigrant, and limited English proficiency groups; Indigenous populations; children and pregnant women; older adults; certain occupational groups; persons with disabilities; and persons with chronic medical conditions. This list of populations was identified to reflect current understandings related to how the health of particular groups of people or particular places are affected by climate change in the United States. While not exhaustive, these populations of concern are those most commonly identified and discussed in reviews of climate change health impacts on vulnerable populations. In this chapter, the order of these populations is not prioritized. While there are other populations that may be threatened disproportionately by climate change, the authors focused the sections of this chapter on populations for which there is substantive literature. In addition to this chapter&rsquo;s summary of vulnerable populations, each of the health outcome chapters in the report includes discussion of populations of concern. Some populations may be covered more extensively in these other chapters; for instance, homeless populations are discussed in <a href=\"https://health2016.globalchange.gov/node/15\">Chapter 8: Mental Health</a>, as the literature on this population focuses primarily on mental health."^^xsd:string;
   
   gcis:descriptionOfEvidenceBase "The literature is consistent and the results are compelling that social determinants of health, such as those related to socioeconomic factors and health disparities, will contribute to the nature and extent of vulnerability and health effects due to climate change. The following factors illustrate the depth of the literature supporting the conclusions above regarding the relationship between climate change health threats, vulnerability (comprised of exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity), and social determinants of health: <br/><br/> <ul> <li> <b><i>Occupation:</i></b> where workers are at risk due to their place of employment or the nature of their duties. </li> <li> <b><i>Time spent in risk-prone locations</i></b>: There is an extensive literature base and broad consensus to support a finding that locations that experience greater risks include urban heat islands where exposed populations are likely to have limited adaptive capacity due to poor housing conditions, and inability to use or to afford air conditioning. . </li> <li> <b><i>Economic status</i>:</b> In the literature, a significant relationship has been observed that links people living in poverty with being less likely to have adequate resources to prepare for or respond to extreme events or to access and afford necessary health or supportive services to cope with climate-related health impacts. </li> <li> <b><i>Condition of infrastructure</i></b>: Deteriorating infrastructure exposes people to increased health risks. The literature is consistent and of good quality to support a finding that persons who evacuate may be hampered by damage to transportation, utilities, and medical or communication facilities and by a lack of safe food or drinking water supplies. </li> <li> <b><i>Disparities in health conditions:</i></b> Health disparities contribute to the sensitivity of people to climate change. Numerous studies indicate increased sensitivity and health risk for people with chronic or preexisting medical or psychological illnesses, people of certain age or stage of life; and people with compromised mobility or cognitive functioning. Social determinants of health contributing to disparities in rates of these conditions increase sensitivity of affected populations. </li> </ul> <br/> Health risks and vulnerability may increase in locations or instances where combinations of social determinants of health that amplify health threats occur simultaneously or close in time or space. For example, people with limited economic resources living in areas with deteriorating infrastructure are more likely to experience disproportionate impacts and are less able to recover following extreme events, increasing their vulnerability to climate-related health effects."^^xsd:string;
   
   gcis:assessmentOfConfidenceBasedOnEvidence "Based on the evidence presented in the peer-reviewed literature, there is <b>high</b> <b>confidence</b> that climate change threatens the health of people and communities by affecting exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity. This conclusion takes into account the consistent evidence presented in multiple studies regarding the causes of vulnerability to climate-related health effects and the role of social determinants of health. There is <b>high confidence</b> based on many peer-reviewed studies that social determinants of health, such as those related to socioeconomic factors and health disparities, may amplify, moderate, or otherwise influence climate-related health effects across populations of concern, and the evidence presented is of good quality, consistent, and compelling."^^xsd:string;
   
   gcis:newInformationAndRemainingUncertainties "A wide range of non-climate factors are expected to interact with climate change health impacts to determine population vulnerability, all with some degree of uncertainty. The extent to which social determinants of health individually and collectively affect the different components of vulnerability is, in many cases, not well understood and not readily amenable to measurement or quantification. Assessing the extent and nature of non-climate impacts as compared to impacts related to climate change is limited by data availability. Many studies of climate change vulnerability have limited geographic scope or focus on single events in particular locations, which makes drawing national-level conclusions more challenging."^^xsd:string;

   a gcis:Finding .

## This finding cites the following entities:


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<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/usgcrp-climate-human-health-assessment-2016/chapter/populations-of-concern/finding/social-determinants-health-interact-climate-factors-affect-health-risk>
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