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@prefix dcterms: <http://purl.org/dc/terms/> .
@prefix xsd: <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix gcis: <http://data.globalchange.gov/gcis.owl#> .
@prefix cito: <http://purl.org/spar/cito/> .
@prefix biro: <http://purl.org/spar/biro/> .

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/usgcrp-climate-human-health-assessment-2016/chapter/temperature-related-death-and-illness/finding/future-increases-temperature-related-deaths>
   dcterms:identifier "future-increases-temperature-related-deaths";
   gcis:findingNumber "2.1"^^xsd:string;
   gcis:findingStatement "Based on present-day sensitivity to heat, an increase of thousands to tens of thousands of premature heat-related deaths in the summer [Very Likely, High Confidence] and a decrease of premature cold-related deaths in the winter [Very Likely, Medium Confidence] are projected each year as a result of climate change by the end of the century. Future adaptation will very likely reduce these impacts (see Changing Tolerance to Extreme Heat Finding). The reduction in cold-related deaths is projected to be smaller than the increase in heat-related deaths in most regions [Likely, Medium Confidence]. "^^xsd:string;
   gcis:isFindingOf <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/usgcrp-climate-human-health-assessment-2016/chapter/temperature-related-death-and-illness>;
   gcis:isFindingOf <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/usgcrp-climate-human-health-assessment-2016>;

## Properties of the finding:
   gcis:findingProcess "The chapter was developed through technical discussions of relevant evidence and expert deliberation by the report authors at several workshops, teleconferences, and email exchanges. The authors considered inputs and comments submitted by the public, the National Academies of Sciences, and Federal agencies. For additional information on the overall report process, see <a href=\"https://health2016.globalchange.gov/node/103\">Appendices 2</a>&ndash;<a href=\"https://health2016.globalchange.gov/node/104\">3</a>.<br/><br/>The content of this chapter was determined after reviewing the collected literature. The authors determined that there was substantial literature available to characterize both observed and projected mortality from elevated temperatures, with sufficient literature available to also characterize mortality from cold as well as cold-related hospitalizations and illness. Populations of concern were also considered to be a high priority for this chapter. As discussed in the chapter, there were limitations in terms of the state of the literature on understanding how future adaptation will influence climate-related changes in temperature-related mortality, addressing the impact of temperature on rural populations, and examining health-related endpoints other than mortality and morbidity."^^xsd:string;
   
   gcis:descriptionOfEvidenceBase "An extensive literature examines projections of mortality due to increasing temperatures. In particular, nine studies were identified that provide heat mortality projections in the United States for at least 10% of the U.S. population. Each of these studies projected an increase in heat-related mortality due to projections of future warming, though several noted the potential modification effect of adaptation (discussed in Key Finding #3). In general, the magnitude of projected increases in annual premature deaths in these studies was in the hundreds to thousands by mid-century, and thousands to tens of thousands by the end of the century, when scaled to the total U.S. population. These conclusions are further supported by studies at the city, county, and state level. <br/><br/> The Third National Climate Assessment (2014 NCA) found that &ldquo;While deaths and injuries related to cold events are projected to decline due to climate change, these reductions are not expected to compensate for the increase in heat-related deaths,&rdquo; and studies published since that time have further supported this finding. Of those studies that examine both heat and cold at the national scale, only Barreca found that the reductions in cold deaths would more than compensate for the increase in heat deaths. Barreca&rsquo;s study was novel in terms of its treatment of humidity, finding that weather that was both cold and dry, or both hot and humid, was associated with higher mortality. However, this treatment of humidity was not the cause of the difference with other studies, as leaving out humidity actually showed a greater benefit from future climate change. Instead, the author stated that the reduction in net deaths was a result of relying on counties with over 100,000 inhabitants, and that using a state-level model covering all U.S. deaths would lead to a prediction of an increase of 1.7% in mortality rates rather than a decrease of 0.1%. The finding by the majority of studies at a national scale that heat deaths will increase more than cold deaths will decrease is consistent with studies at smaller spatial scales. Moreover, several studies provide rationales for why heat mortality is expected to outpace cold mortality, and some studies suggest that cold mortality may not be responsive to warming. Barnett et al. (2012) showed that cold waves were not generally associated with an increase in deaths beyond the mortality already associated with cold weather, in contrast to heat waves."^^xsd:string;
   
   gcis:assessmentOfConfidenceBasedOnEvidence "There is <b>high confidence</b> that heat deaths will <b>very likely</b> increase in the future compared to a future without climate change, based on high agreement and a large number of studies as well as consistency across scenarios and regions. Because there are fewer studies on winter mortality, and because studies exist that suggest that winter mortality is not strongly linked to temperatures, there is <b>medium confidence</b> that deaths due to extreme cold will <b>very likely</b> decrease. The majority of the studies that examine both heat and cold deaths find that the increase in heat deaths due to climate change will <b>likely</b> be larger than the decrease in cold deaths in most regions, but there are a limited number of such studies, leading to an assessment of <b>medium</b> <b>confidence</b>."^^xsd:string;
   
   gcis:newInformationAndRemainingUncertainties "The largest remaining uncertainties concern questions of future adaptation, which are discussed in Key Finding #3. A related uncertainty involves the link between the temperatures measured at weather stations and the temperatures experienced by individuals. As long as the relationship between the weather station and the microclimate or indoor/outdoor difference remains constant, this should not impair projections. However, as microclimates, building construction, or behavior change, the relationship between recorded weather station temperature and actual temperature exposure will change. This is related to, but broader than, the question of adaptation. Additionally, there are uncertainties regarding the non-linearities of heat response with increasing temperatures."^^xsd:string;

   a gcis:Finding .

## This finding cites the following entities:


<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/usgcrp-climate-human-health-assessment-2016/chapter/temperature-related-death-and-illness/finding/future-increases-temperature-related-deaths>
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<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/usgcrp-climate-human-health-assessment-2016/chapter/temperature-related-death-and-illness/finding/future-increases-temperature-related-deaths>
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