table : water-related-illness

Climate Sensitive Agents of Water Related Illness

table 6.1


This table appears in chapter 6 of the The Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States: A Scientific Assessment report.

This table is composed of this array :
445e70ec (7x4)
Pathogen or Toxin Producer Exposure Pathway Selected Health Outcomes & Symptoms Major Climate Correlation or Driver (strongest driver(s) listed first)
Algae: Toxigenic marine species of Alexandrium, Pseudo-nitzschia, Dinophysis, Gambierdiscus; Karenia brevis Shellfish, Fish, Recreational waters (aerosolized toxins) Gastrointestinal and neurologic illness caused by shellfish poisoning (paralytic, amnesic, diarrhetic, neurotoxic) or fish poisoning (ciguatera). Temperature (increased water temperature), ocean surface currents, ocean acidification, hurricanes (Gambierdiscus spp. and K. brevis), Asthma exacerbations, eye irritations caused by contact with aerosolized toxins (K. brevis).
Cyanobacteria (multiple freshwater species producing toxins including microcystin) Drinking water Recreational waters Liver and kidney damage, gastroenteritis (diarrhea and vomiting), neurological disorders, and respiratory arrest. Temperature, precipitation patterns
Enteric bacteria & protozoan parasites: Salmonella enterica; Campylobacter species; Toxigenic Escherichia coli; Cryptosporidium; Giardia Drinking water Recreational waters, Shellfish Enteric pathogens generally cause gastroenteritis. Some cases may be severe and may be associated with long-term effects and reoccurrence. Temperature (air and water; both increase and decrease), heavy precipitation, and flooding
Enteric viruses: enteroviruses; rotaviruses; noroviruses; hepatitis A and E Drinking water Recreational waters, Shellfish Most cases result in gastrointestinal illness. Severe outcomes may include paralysis and infection of the heart or other organs. Heavy precipitation, flooding, and temperature (air and water; both increase and decrease)
Leptospira and Leptonema bacteria Recreational waters Mild to severe flu-like illness (with or without fever) to severe cases of meningitis, kidney, and liver failure. Flooding, temperature (increased water temperature), heavy precipitation
Vibrio bacteria species Recreational waters, Shellfish Varies by species but include gastroenteritis (V. parahaemolyticus, V. cholerae), septicemia (bloodstream infection) through ingestion or wounds (V. vulnificus), skin, eye, and ear infections (V. alginolyticus). Temperature (increased water temperature), sea level rise, precipitation patterns (as it affects coastal salinity)
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