reference : Evidence implicating nymphal Ixodes pacificus (Acari, ixodidae) in the epidemiology of Lyme disease in California

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/report/usgcrp-climate-human-health-assessment-2016/reference/352fa415-720a-4d2c-9aa3-d078bc6e9246
Bibliographic fields
reftype Journal Article
Abstract To clarify the role of nymphal versus adult western black-legged ticks (Ixodes pacificus) in the epidemiology of Lyme disease, the seasonal distribution, abundance, and spirochetal infection rates in these stages, and the seasonal occurrence of ticks biting humans and of incident cases of Lyme disease were determined in northern California. Although their seasonal activity periods overlapped for about one-third of the year, nymphs and adults predominated in different seasons, the former from late spring to summer and the latter from fall to early spring. At one site, four (4%) of 100 adults from low vegetation bordering a hardwood forest and 44 (13.6%) of 324 nymphs from leaf litter in the forest were found to contain Borrelia burgdorferi. Biting-collection records revealed that nymphs attach to people more commonly than recognized previously; I. pacificus nymphs comprised 12.5% of 967 ticks of various species and stages and 42% of all nymphs submitted for identification. Attachments by nymphs occurred primarily between April and August, which coincided with the seasonal occurrence of most incident cases of Lyme disease. Collectively, these findings strongly implicate the nymphal stage of I. pacificus as the primary vector of B. burgdorferi to humans in this region.
Author Clover, J. R.; Lane, R. S.
Date Sep
ISSN 0002-9637
Issue 3
Journal The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Keywords lizard sceloporus-occidentalis; borrelia-burgdorferi infection; united-states; ticks; interrelationship; america; ricinus
Language English
Notes Ry073 Times Cited:83 Cited References Count:23
Pages 237-240
Title Evidence implicating nymphal Ixodes pacificus (Acari, ixodidae) in the epidemiology of Lyme disease in California
Volume 53
Year 1995
Bibliographic identifiers
.reference_type 0
_record_number 17730
_uuid 352fa415-720a-4d2c-9aa3-d078bc6e9246